Chlamydia results from an infection with Chlamydia trachomatis. It is a common infection that can spread through anal, vaginal, and oral sex. A pregnant woman can also transmit it to the baby during delivery.
Chlamydia usually doesn't produce symptoms, but can become more serious if it goes untreated. It is usually easy to cure with early treatment.
If symptoms do occur, they may include a change in vaginal or penile discharge and burning pain during urination.
Chlamydia can also affect the rectum, if the infection occurs as a result of anal sex or if the infection spreads from another area. This can lead to:
- rectal pain
- rectal bleeding
- rectal discharge
If you feel you are experiencing any of these symptoms, schedule an appointment with Dr. Aronoff right away.
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) is a common virus that affects the skin, cervix, genitals and some other parts of the body.
HSV-1 usually affects the mouth. People can contract it through saliva or if there is a herpes-related sore around their partner’s mouth. It can pass to the genital area during oral sex.
HSV-2 can affect the genital area, the anal area, and the mouth. It transmits through vaginal, oral, and anal sex.
A person cannot contract herpes from utensils, toilet seats, swimming pools, soaps, or bedding. However, if a person touches a body part where herpes is present and then touches another part of their body, they can spread it to that area.
Once herpes is present, it stays in the body. It usually remains dormant, however, and many people will never develop symptoms.
The main symptom is a blister around the mouth, anus, or genital area. These blisters can break, causing a painful sore that takes a week or longer to disappear.
Some symptoms of initial infection include:
- body aches
- swollen lymph nodes
Some people never have symptoms, some have only an initial outbreak, and others have repeated outbreaks. A person might never know that they have the herpes virus, but they can still transmit it to others.
There is currently no cure, but medication can help relieve any symptoms. Daily antiviral medications can help prevent the spread of herpes.
For more information on Herpes and treatment options, call Dr. Aronoff's office today.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) refers to a group of viruses that affect the skin and mucous membranes, such as the throat, cervix, anus, and mouth. There are various types, and some pose a higher risk than others.
HPV is common and affects around 79 million people in the United States. Nearly everyone who is sexually active will have HPV at some point in their lives unless they have a vaccination to prevent it.
Many people experience no symptoms, but they can still pass on the virus to others.
Some types of HPV can lead to genital warts. These types tend to be low risk.
Having HPV can also increase the risk of cervical, anal, and throat cancer.
HPV can spread through:
- vaginal and anal sex
- oral sex
- genital-to-genital contact
- from a pregnant woman to the fetus, though this is rare
Vaccination can help prevent the transmission of HPV.
Syphilis stems from an infection with the bacterium Treponema pallidum. It is a potentially serious infection, and early treatment is necessary to prevent permanent damage and long-term complications.
There are usually four stages. In the first stage, a person may notice a round, firm sore at the site of the infection, usually around the genitals, anus, rectum, or mouth. It tends to last for 3–6 weeks.
The sore may not be visible, since it is often painless and may be hidden, for example, in the vagina.
A person can pass on the bacterium at any point during the infection. Syphilis can also pass from a woman to the fetus during pregnancy.
At the secondary stage, there may be:
- a non-itchy rash of rough, brownish or red spots on the palms of the hands or soles of the feet
- lesions in the mucous membrane, such as the mouth, vagina, or anus
- swollen lymph nodes
- hair loss
- weight loss
- muscle aches
- a fever
In the latent stage, the symptoms disappear, but the bacteria remain in the body and can continue to cause damage.
In the tertiary stage, life-threatening complications can affect the brain, nervous system, eyes, heart, and several other organs. Symptoms at this stage will depend on which part of the body syphilis affects.
The only way to confirm whether or not syphilis is present is by conducting a test. If the result is positive, the person should inform their sexual partner or partners, and they, too, should seek medical advice.
Symptoms will appear 21 days after transmission of the bacteria, on average, but they can take between 10 and 90 days to appear.
Gonorrhea is a common infection caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae. It is highly contagious and, without treatment, can lead to life threatening complications.
A person can transmit gonorrhea during oral, vaginal, or anal sex. If they touch an infected area of the body and then touch their eye, gonorrhea can also lead to pink eye.
A pregnant woman can also pass the infection to the baby during delivery.
N. gonorrhoeae thrive in warm, moist parts of the body, such as the vagina, penis, mouth, rectum, and eye. A person can transmit this infection during sexual contact.
There are often no symptoms, but if they do occur, they may include:
- pain during urination
- swelling of the genitals
- bleeding between periods
If it affects the rectum, it can lead to:
- anal itching
- pain during bowel movements
An infection that occurs as a result of oral sex can lead to a burning pain in the throat and swollen lymph nodes.
In females, the infection can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease. Males may experience an inflammation of the epididymis, which is the tube that stores sperm. Both conditions can affect fertility.
As soon as a person has gonorrhea, the bacteria can spread to other people and to other parts of the body through physical contact. Treatment with antibiotics can usually resolve the infection.
*** information obtained from Medical News Today